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BETEL AND SIRIH IN OLD JAVANESE LITERARY TEXTS

apahidwan
spittoon bearer

apù, apuh, hapù
lime
no one will smooth away the lime that covered my eyebrows, tan hana mupihe halis ku n a-pwa (BY 15, 14a)

caóðana
sandal wood
at once the betel with fragrant flowers was served and distributed, drah úìghràn têka tang sêðah saha lawan kusuma wangi huwus winàrttakên (Sut 147, 15c); fragrant was the sandalwood, soft was the lime, mrik tang caóðana, màr kapurnya (Sut 147, 15d)

hêmu
to keep in the mouth, said of a betel quid
anghêmu sêpah (Kres XXIX, 3c)

hidu bang
betel spittle

kacu
catechu, cuth (Areca catechu). The gum used with betel, like gambir
one carrier was trying to carry all kinds of wares, sasiki pikul-pikulanya maghaóþah (Nag 60, 3a), catechu thorn-apple bamboo shoots, palm spathes, young tamarind, kacu kacubung bung upih kamal anwàm (Nag 60, 3b), winnows, steamers cooking-pots trays and fire-drills, tapi kukusan haruðang ðulang uswàn (Nag 60, 3c), it looked as if it would all clatter to the ground so that he got laughed at, lwir amurutuk úaranya ginuywan (Nag 60, 3d)

kajang
vessel for sirih
the king gives gifts during the audience consisting of maóimaya sarwabhùûaóa dukula mulya, and sirih, dulur ing sêrêh kinajangan (Hariw 51, 4c)

kapulaga
cardamom, added to betel quid
when the woman and her lover almost finished their fourth or fifth drink – the hour struck three – the betel came up, without fail the pastika, served in a refined ornamented cloth, because people who were fond of chewing betel, ready prepared, did not want them to be served in a fruit bowl, sampun ping pat ping lima anginum umeh atêlasa tibà ng ðawuh têlu (Kres. 35, 12a), ndah prapterika tang sêðah rêsêp awor kapulaga tan atön (Kres. 35, 12b); apastikà pik-pikan sabuking banantên alangö wawan ika yadin sinungakên (Kres. 35, 12c); ng wang rakwa awanêh ing sêrêh kinajangan tan aharêp awawana pawwahan (Kres. 35, 12d)

kapur
lime
at once the betel with fragrant flowers was served and distributed, drah úìghràn têka tang sêðah saha lawan kusuma wangi huwus winàrttakên (Sut 147, 15c); fragrant was the sandalwood, soft was the lime, mrik tang caóðana, màr kapurnya (Sut 147, 15d)

kusuma
flowers
at once the betel with fragrant flowers was served and distributed, drah úìghràn têka tang sêðah saha lawan kusuma wangi huwus winàrttakên (Sut 147, 15c); fragrant was the sandalwood, soft was the lime, mrik tang caóðana, màr kapurnya (Sut 147, 15d)

lêñjêt
lime
sêðah, lêñjêt/lime, and woh/pinang are three (Koraw 48)

luha
pinang?
fruit is used to embellish the audience hall, watangan, in which the reception of Rama takes place, ngka n tating tang luha atap lawan kyakya len wwah nikang nyu gaðing (Ram XXV, 24a)

mayang
flower of the areca palm
on the slope of Mount Suwela are many trees, among others the areca with flowers: wwah mamayang (Ram XVI, 39b)

pahidwan
spittoon

pamucangan
betel-box
the concubines have a maidservant carrying a betel-box, tang ceþyà pamucangan (Kres XXXIII, 10a); Salya enters the inner quarters of the encampment with his servant carrying his betel-box, naràrya mwang hamba amawa pamucangan mañjing i dalêm (BY 36, 9b)

pasêrêhan
betel box
the prince looked at the betel box of the princess and then to her eyes (BK LVIII, 5b)

pastika
something that is added to a betel quid
a betel quid with pastika is send by a prince to a princess, sira amijilakên kanaka, rajata, ratna, bhùûaóa, adulur wilàpa saha sambah ira, saha sêpah pinastika (Hariw XVI, 7b,c); when the woman and her lover almost finished their fourth or fifth drink – the hour struck three – the betel came up, without fail the pastika, served in a refined ornamented cloth, because people who were fond of chewing betel, ready prepared, did not want them to be served in a fruit bowl, sampun ping pat ping lima anginum umeh atêlasa tibà ng ðawuh têlu (Kres. 35, 12a), ndah prapterika tang sêðah rêsêp awor kapulaga tan atön (Kres. 35, 12b); apastikà pik-pikan sabuking banantên alangö wawan ika yadin sinungakên (Kres. 35, 12c); ng wang rakwa awanêh ing sêrêh kinajangan tan aharêp awawana pawwahan (Kres. 35, 12d)

pawwahan
betel box, betel box carrier
apawwahan, to carry a betel box
the prince enters the palace to take leave from his father; he is accompanied by his beteldoosdrager, pawwahan (BK III, 2a)[ a younger brother of Kåûóa sits holding a betel box, apawwahan, in the back of the chariot in which his older brother is (Kariw XVII, 6d); the female servant of the princess carries her betel box, Kesarì tan sah pawwahan gati nya (Hariw XX, 7d); the princesses female servant carries her betel box, lìlà apawwahan iki Kesarì (Hariw XXVII, 8a); the chaperone of the princess carry a betel box, kaka anwam angure lolyàmawang pawwahan (Suty 73, 5d); they received clothes and they were accompanied by betel box carriers, angiring rucira têkeng apawwahan (Ghat VI, 2a); someone carries the betel box, mangku pawwahan, in a roya entourage (Ghat VI, 10c); Dhanañjayasuta carries a golden betel box, mawa pawwahan mas (Ghat X, 1d); two hunchbacks accompany and carry the golden betel box, làlana karwa wungkuk arêjang angiring amawa pawwahan tatur (Ghat XI, 3c); the king seats himself in the wagon with his betel-set bearer, munggah ring ratha sang manghawin pawwahan (Kres XV, 81); when the woman and her lover almost finished their fourth or fifth drink – the hour struck three – the betel came up, without fail the pastika, served in a refined ornamented cloth, because people who were fond of chewing betel, ready prepared, did not want them to be served in a betel box, sampun ping pat ping lima anginum umeh atêlasa tibà ng ðawuh têlu (Kres. 35, 12a), ndah prapterika tang sêðah rêsêp awor kapulaga tan atön (Kres. 35, 12b); apastikà pik-pikan sabuking banantên alangö wawan ika yadin sinungakên (Kres. 35, 12c); ng wang rakwa awanêh ing sêrêh kinajangan tan aharêp awawana pawwahan (Kres. 35, 12d)

pinang*
aminang
to invite to come
to chew betel
betel chewing in company is important, if you don’t do it, your face is as it were burnt and charred,saksat dagdha geseng tikang wadana yan kita tan anginanga irikang sabhà (Niti VIII, 2a)

pucang
areca-palm, areca-nut, betel, also fruit in general
sêðah and pucang , together with the game, aburu, and lalab are the food products that a hunter-husband brings home for his wife (SR IX,8d); ); rasaning sêðah, pucang, adoh tambùla (Niti I, 2b); empty is a face that does not chew betel, masêpi tikang waktra tan amucang wwang (Niti V, 4a); betel nuts are offered to a poet in a pangalusan sanctuary on the slope of a mountain, asuhun-suhun pucang-pucang (Hariw XXI, 4b); the sirih vine crept around the pucang palm, pucang arêja rinambatan sêrêh (Sut IX, 3c); the sugar of the nectar of the fruit, gula-gula ning wway ing pucang; here pucang means fruit (Kres X,1); there is a lady of waiting in the harem who spends her time composing lyrics of love and writing them down whilst chewing betel, punucang-pucang (Kres X, 11c); during travel the servants of the king carry his betel box, pamucangan, and writing board, karas (Kres XIII, 3c); the demons are welcomed by the hermits in the hermitage with betel and water, sang mahaåûi sumanggraha (Awj X, 22c), sêðah, pucang, wwai (AWJ X, 22d); among the wwah-wwahan pucang sêðah langsêb pisang poh, etc. are served at the dinner for the king and queen during their visit of the village (AWJ XXXI, 11a_

rêjit
to spit
there are birds, parañjangan, making the sound of people spitting out their betel quid, rêjit sêpah (Sut IX, 4b)

sabuk ing banantên
cloth made of special textile to cover/put ready made betel quids in
when the woman and her lover almost finished their fourth or fifth drink – the hour struck three – the betel came up, without fail the pastika, served in a refined ornamented cloth, because people who were fond of chewing betel, ready prepared, did not want them to be served in a fruit bowl, sampun ping pat ping lima anginum umeh atêlasa tibà ng ðawuh têlu (Kres. 35, 12a), ndah prapterika tang sêðah rêsêp awor kapulaga tan atön (Kres. 35, 12b); apastikà pik-pikan sabuking banantên alangö wawan ika yadin sinungakên (Kres. 35, 12c); ng wang rakwa awanêh ing sêrêh kinajangan tan aharêp awawana pawwahan (Kres. 35, 12d)

sêðah, sêrêh
betel-vine, sirih, betel-leaf
sêðah and pucang , together with the game, aburu, and lalab are the food products that a hunter-husband brings home for his wife (SR IX,8d); betel was offered, sumêðah, when Rama was received by villagers (Ram XXVI, 25a); rasaning sêðah, pucang, adoh tambùla (Niti I, 2b); sêðah, lêñjêt/lime, and woh/pinang are three (Koraw 48); at once the betel with fragrant flowers was served and distributed, drah úìghràn têka tang sêðah saha lawan kusuma wangi huwus winàrttakên (Sut 147, 15c); fragrant was the sandalwood, soft was the lime, mrik tang caóðana, màr kapurnya (Sut 147, 15d); the prince was served wonderfull food, bhojànindya, by the hermits: talês, wwai sumaji, sale puntì, duryyan, panasa, panginum wwai saha sêðah (Sut XVI, 2c, d); the demons are welcomed by the hermits in the hermitage with betel and water, sang mahaåûi sumanggraha (Awj X, 22c), sêðah, pucang, wwai (AWJ X, 22d); the king gives betel to his queen as a sign of love, because they go to bed afterwards, asung sêpah (Awj XXI, 6b), munggaha ing jinêm (Awj XXI, 6d); among the wwah-wwahan pucang sêðah langsêb pisang poh, etc. are served at the dinner for the king and queen during their visit of the village (AWJ XXXI, 11a); a jenggi maid servant sweetly waited upon them with a betel-kit on her lap, sitting in unerring attitude, lawañ jênggi rare marêk rêsêp amangku sêðah aúila tan salah bhawa (Kres. 35,11a); when the woman and her lover almost finished their fourth or fifth drink – the hour struck three – the betel came up, without fail the pastika, served in a refined ornamented cloth, because people who were fond of chewing betel, ready prepared, did not want them to be served in a fruit bowl, sampun ping pat ping lima anginum umeh atêlasa tibà ng ðawuh têlu (Kres. 35, 12a), ndah prapterika tang sêðah rêsêp awor kapulaga tan atön (Kres. 35, 12b); apastikà pik-pikan sabuking banantên alangö wawan ika yadin sinungakên (Kres. 35, 12c); ng wang rakwa awanêh ing sêrêh kinajangan tan aharêp awawana pawwahan (Kres. 35, 12d); rasaning sêðah, pucang, adoh tambùla (Niti I, 2b); sêðah, lêñjêt/lime, and woh/pinang are three (Koraw 48);

sêpah
quid, chewed food
Samba gave is father sirih, pinapak wineh sêpah (BK II, 27b); the princess took the quid from the prince with her lips, wineh sêpah, anganggap ing tutuk arum (BK XXVII, 3a); betel quids are found on a flat stone, sêpah angênêt ing watu angalasa (BK IV, 8b); a princess sends a postiljon d amour, jaruman, with the request to exchange a sirih leaf, sêrêh suwala, for a used betel quid, sêpah, sêrêh suwala ning sêpah (BK XLI,1b); there exist special quids that give protection, sêpah sarik, rakûana (BK XLI, 6d); gold, silver, precious stones and jewels as well as a letter with words of praise and a betel quid with pastika is send by a prince to a princess, sira amijilakên kanaka, rajata, ratna, bhùûaóa, adulur wilàpa saha sambah ira, saha sêpah pinastika (Hariw XVI, 7b,c); a token, cihna, is given by the prince to the princess, consisting of a royal quid, sösöran haji, a lovely quid, sêpah apênêd (Hariw XVII, 9b); the prince and princess, newly wed, exchange chewed betel .. give me a piece of chewed betel passed from mouth to mouth, tasànmathan asunga sêpah sakeng waja (Sut 81, 2c); the prince gave his princess chewed betel, angêmban asung sêpah (Sut 88, 1b); bring a betel quid in the mouth, one that is chewed on?, atêra anghêmu sêpah (Kres XXIX, 3c); Ksitisundari asked for betel to be put in her mouth as bekel when she wanted to commit ritual suicide, aminta binêkêlan sêpah ri cangkêm (BY 15, 11b); lovers exchanged betel leaves constantly, maweh sêpah (BY 22, 4d); those who are wounded on the battlefield ask Yudhistira and Arjuna for betel, karêngan mangañjali wineh sêpah amuhara tìbra ning wêlas (BY 23, 3d); Salya placed his quid and betel in the hands of Satyawati when he left her, nà sösöran ira anginang saha sêpah nira inagêmakên (BY 38, 13b); how could Salya’s wounds be healed, even if she were to use her chewed betel leaves as an ointment, sêpah ira lanà jinampyakên (BY 44, 15d); aweh sêpah, Arjuna and the nymphs during love making (AWW XXXII, 1d); the king gives his wife a betel quid before making love in the jinêm, asung sêpah (AWJ XXI, 6b); a beautiful girl is in a building under the shade of priyaka trees nearby a hanging rock; she endured her painful sorrow, carrying flowers; perhaps the king had sent her well-preserved chewed betel leaves secretly, pintên ngganya huwus sinùkûma kinirim sêpah inapi têkap nareúwara (AWJ XXXII, 11c), marma angdàni lulutnya rakwa matêmah kakawin inuparêngga ring tangis, and thus aroused her affection, which too the form of a kakawin adorned with heart-rendering cries (AWJ XXXII, 11d); a nice manggis fallen on the ground, like th lip paint of someone who has been given a betel quid, hana manggis arja tumibeng kûiti, kadi laþi ning wineh sêpah (AWJ XXXVIII, 4b); the lover of a woman gives him a chewed betel, kisses her on the lips and cheeks, cangkêm nya angulugakên sêpah garêntên mangarêki sahaja anahut pipi (Kres. 35, 9d); the queen did not refuse the chewed betel quid of the king any longer, wahw anut ing gatì gati nira anuti mari matulak wineh sêpah (AWJ 37, 2a); ); beautiful manggis fell on the ground, and split open, like the lips of a girl given the chewed betel, hana manggis arja tumibeng kûiti, kadi laþi ning wineh sêpah (AWJ 38, 4b)

sêrêh
betel leaf, betel vine ready for chewing
when Ràma and Lakûmana arrive in the hermitage they are received by all the sages with airúànti, puûpa, phalamùla, suggandha, dhùpa, and with sirih and drinking water, len wwah sêrêh wway ininum panamuy mahàåûi (Ram II, 20c,d); two people, a man and a woman, are enjoying sirih, raúmi nyàn pangagêm sêrêh (Kres XXVI, 7c); a betel quid offered with burnt shell of lime, sêrêh pamahugi makapu susuh gêsêng, (BY I,7c) is tasteless between the teeth, tan sêðêpanya ring waja tuhun palarên (BY I, 7d); respectful reception of a guest; pàdya, water for washing the feet of a guest; saha càmana, water for rinsing the mouth; saha sêrêh ing kajang, with sirih on a cushion/cloth (Hariw II, 20b); the king gives gifts during the audience consisting of maóimaya sarwabhùûaóa dukula mulya, and sirih, dulur ing sêrêh kinajangan (Hariw 51, 4c); the sirih vine crept around the pucang palm, pucang arêja rinambatan sêrêh (Sut IX, 3c); when Ràma and Lakûmana arrive in the hermitage they are received by all the sages with airúànti, puûpa, phalamùla, suggandha, dhùpa, and with sirih and drinking water, len wwah sêrêh wway ininum panamuy mahàåûi (Ram II, 20c,d); a wandering poet, kawi kakung, will be approached by brokers, paraning jaruman (Kres XIII,4c), and send gifts, make-up, betel, and secret notes to a princess, akirim sipat bhurat arum, sisig inamêr, sêrêh (Kres XIII, 4d); food etc. is brought and sweatmeats, sirih, a belt and nice smelling boreh (for the king of Cedi as a guest in the palace), pràpta ng annàdi len modaka sêrêh asabuk mwang burat mrik wangi nya (Kres XXVIII, 2c); the male and female hermits offer cacah and sêrêh (Awj XXIII, 4d); a servant carries betel leaves, kawula manghawin sêrêh (BY 22, 4a); when the woman and her lover almost finished their fourth or fifth drink – the hour struck three – the betel came up, without fail the pastika, served in a refined ornamented cloth, because people who were fond of chewing betel, ready prepared, did not want them to be served in a fruit bowl, sampun ping pat ping lima anginum umeh atêlasa tibà ng ðawuh têlu (Kres. 35, 12a), ndah prapterika tang sêðah rêsêp awor kapulaga tan atön (Kres. 35, 12b); apastikà pik-pikan sabuking banantên alangö wawan ika yadin sinungakên (Kres. 35, 12c); ng wang rakwa awanêh ing sêrêh kinajangan tan aharêp awawana pawwahan (Kres. 35, 12d); (the float of the Prince of Paguhan presented his food) and Sri Handiwa-handiwa was the form of his float which bore dukula cloth and betel leaf, sang Úrì Handiwa-Handiwa lwir i tapêl niran amawa dukùla len sêrêh (Nag 65, 3b)

sösöran
quid
a token, cihna, is given by the prince to the princess, consisting of a royal quid, sösöran haji, a lovely quid, sêpah apênêd (Hariw XVII, 9b); ); Salya placed his quid and betel in the hands of Satyawati when he left her, nà
sösöran ira anginang saha sêpah nira inagêmakên (BY 38, 13b)

suruh, same as sêrêh
betel leaf
sêðah ngaraning suruh, lêñêt ngaraning apuh (Koraw 48,9); suruh sapon, palang akuru, wonga wari (Koraw 192.20); the Yadu kings, guests of Kåûóa for the marriage, are offered clothes and betel, linàd dinadar suruhan (Hariw 49, 2b)

susuh
small water snail
the shell of it is used for lime for betel chewing (BY I, 7c; 13d)

tambula, tàmbùla
betel
at the festivities on the occasion of Rama’s return to the palace food and betel, tambula, are served (Ram XXVI, 25a); refreshments, tambula, and betel, tàmbula rasa, were served during the dancing and music making (Ram XVI, 111d);

wwah, woh
sirih, betel quid, betel nut, areca palm
the prince and princess have a quid in their mouths, but they forget to chew it, mesi wwah turung asêrêh tutuk nika agya (BK XXVIII, 16b); the prince takes a betel quid and makes a smacking sound, ya mangagêm wwah bhawanya kêcap ahidu (BK LVIII, 5a); sêðah, lêñjêt/lime, and woh/pinang are three (Koraw 48); when Ràma and Lakûmana arrive in the hermitage they are received by all the sages with airúànti, puûpa, phalamùla, suggandha, dhùpa, and with sirih and drinking water, len wwah sêrêh wway ininum panamuy mahàåûi (Ram II, 20c,d); on the slope of Mount Suwela are many trees, among others the areca with flowers: wwah mamayang (Ram XVI, 39b); the carriers, following the king carried mirica kasumba kapas kalapa wwah (Nag. 60.1c), kalayar asêm pinikul saha wijyàn, kalayar and tamarind they carried, as well as sesame seeds (Nag 60, 1d);

wwah-wwahan
sirih and fruit
among the wwah-wwahan pucang sêðah langsêb pisang poh, etc. are served at the dinner for the king and queen during their visit of the village (AWJ XXXI, 11a_

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