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INCENSE, SMELLS IN OLD JAVANESE TEXTSS

letter a

agaru
agallochum, the fragrant aloe, the wood with an aromatic smell is burnt as perfume
the statue of Gana was worshipped by the smoke of flowers offerings, mixed with the scent of basil, aloe, sandalwood and resin, sulasih, agaru, candana, gulgula màr (BY 6, 2b,c)

Kalkman 2003: 309: Aquillaria malaccensis, Thymelaeceae
Kalkman 2003: 311, Aquilaria malaccensis, Thymelaeaceae family. It is in fact the ‘kernelwood’ of the tree affected by a mould. The product of this tree is called aloewood, or agar (Hindi), or gaharu. It should not be mixed up with aloe gum which is from the Aloe barbadensis or Aloe vera.

alikure
fragrant plant or tree?
Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90)

asêp
incense
the fragrance of new unused clothes, fragrant of flowers, fragrant ointment from incense uninterruptedly, ambö ning tigasàn angutkaþa sêkar jênu wangi ning asêp nirantara (AWW XXXI, 1c)

letter b

balêman
fragrant fire
the fragrant smoke of a fire, balêman, of camphor, cardamom, agallochum/garu, and resin (BK XLI, 10b)

letter c

candana
sandel wood, heartwood of Santalum Album, dried, produces nice smelling perfume.
In India real, white sandel wood is called úrikandha; there is also yellow sandel wood which is considered inferior, pìtacandana, and red sandel wood a milder scented species, raktacandana (Acaya 1998: 224-225)
Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90); the statue of Gana was worshipped by the smoke of flowers offerings, mixed with the scent of basil, aloe, sandalwood and resin, sulasih, agaru, candana, gulgula màr (BY 6, 2b,c)

candu
unguent, same as opium?
Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90)

cêre
sereh, citronella grass, lime grass, Cympobogon, Poaceae family
Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90)

letter d

damar úila
resin, put in a fire
the fragrant smoke of camphor, cardamom, agallochum and the smell of incense in a fire, balêman ikang damar úila (BK XLI, 10b)

Kalkman 2003: 289, probably the resin of the Dipterocarpus, Shorea, Hopea and Vatica. Damar is a general name for resin.

dewadàru
pine-tree, Pinus deodara; its wood can be used for the preparation of incense
it has a nice smell and is holy, dewadàru ya marùm úuci (BK 41,12)

dhùpa
incense
the aim of aúwamedhayajña is: to make a funeral pyre, magawe tumangan, as high as one prasàda, saprasàda duhurnya, and as big as two prasàda, rong prasàda gêngnya, and throw all kinds of incense and fragrances in it: dhùpa, ergulo, rasamala, salwiran wawangi, saking sabrang, saking Yawa, from each place their characteristic fragrances, saking sowang-sowang sawangi-wangi; (Koraw 78); Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90); there are clouds of incense and musk at the offering place, as if a Buddhist ascetic was performing worship, dhùpa kasturi ring pahoman, kadi hana sira bhikûwangarcaóa (Sut 67, 7b)

letter e

ergulo
scented water, rose water
the aim of aúwamedhayajña is: to make a funeral pyre, magawe tumangan, as high as one prasàda, saprasàda duhurnya, and as big as two prasàda, rong prasàda gêngnya, and throw all kinds of incense and fragrances in it: dhùpa, ergulo, rasamala, salwiran wawangi, saking sabrang, saking Yawa, from each place their characteristic fragrances, saking sowang-sowang sawangi-wangi; (Koraw 78)

letter g

gandha
smell, incense
when Purnawijaya arrives in the Sambodhi wihara, he worships the Buddha, while incense, lamps, perfume and rice-grains, water for washing the feet are near at hand, dhùpa mwang dìpa gandhàkûata sadulur ikang pàdyàrgha tan adoh (KKK 16, 3b), and one couls smell the scent of the fragrant flowers, mingling with the scent of unguents, màlyàrum puûpamàla prakaþa wangi nika mrik màr saha jênu (KKK 16, 13c);

gandha kasturi
musk
the sages from the air shower flowers and fragrant musk and finely crushed gold-ungent from the air at the death of Bhìûma. Åûi ning langit: sêkar ura, jênu hema, gandha kasturì kadi warûa kanaka (BY 13, 4)

gandhàkûata
a mixture of (eight) fragrant substances; akûata, unbroken, unhusked grains.
It is probably a mixture of grains and powdered fragrant substance, for instance sandel wood
saha wìja gandhàkûata dhùpa dìpa (Adiparwa 134.16)

garu, agaru
agallochum, fragrant aloe; the wood, which has an aromatic smell, is burnt
in the camp of the Yadus was the aromatic smoke of a mixture of camphor, cardamom, garu, and balêman (BK XLI, 10b)

Kalkman 2003: 311, Aquilaria malaccensis, Thymelaeaceae family. It is in fact the ‘kernelwood’ of the tree affected by a mould. The product of this tree is called aloewood, or agar (Hindi), or gaharu.

gulgula
bdellium, or the exudation of Amuris agallochum, a fragrant gum or resin used as a perfume and medicament
the statue of Gana was worshipped by the smoke of flowers offerings, mixed with the scent of basil, aloe, sandalwood and resin, wangi ning sulasih, agaru, candana, gulgula màr (BY 6, 2b,c)

Kalkman 2003: 307, bedellium is the resin of one of the Commiphora. They exist in Arabia (Commiphora myrrha), Somalia (Commiphora abyssina), India and elsewhere.

Me: in India by gulgula the Boswellia is meant. Could the OJ gulgula mean the same?

Kalkman 2003: 304, by Olibanum the ‘gestolde gomhars’ of the Boswellia is meant.

letter h

haricandana
yellow sandel wood, Santalum album, Santalaceae
used as wood for a cremation, úawanya tinunu nira ring haricandana (Maus.Parwa)

hrêbuk, mrêbuk
pollen, which spread fragrance
Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90)

Letter j

Jênu
Cosmetic unguent
when Purnawijaya arrives in the Sambodhi wihara, he worships the Buddha, while incense, lamps, perfume and rice-grains, water for washing the feet are near at hand, dhùpa mwang dìpa gandhàkûata sadulur ikang pàdyàrgha tan adoh (KKK 16, 3b), and one couls smell the scent of the fragrant flowers, mingling with the scent of unguents, màlyàrum puûpamàla prakaþa wangi nika mrik màr saha jênu (KKK 16, 13c);

letter k

kalêmbak
fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis
Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90)

Kalkman 2003: 311, Aquilaria malaccensis, Thymelaeaceae family. It is in fact the ‘kernelwood’ of the tree affected by a mould. The product of this tree is called aloewood, or agar (Hindi), or gaharu.

kapulaga
cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Zingiberaceae
the fragrant smoke of camphor, cardamom, agallochum and the smell of incense (BK XLI, 10b)

kapur
camphor, Dryobalanops aromatica
the fragrant smoke of camphor, cardamom, agallochum and the smell of incense (BK XLI, 10b)

Kalkman 2003: 291, camphor is a bicyclic keton, it should be considered as an etheric oil rather than resin. It comes from the Cinnamomum camhora, of the Lauriaceae. These trees grow in China, Taiwan and Japan. In Indonesia a similar product is made from the Dryobalanops aromatica, a member of the Dipterocarpaceae. It is a found in the natural ‘spleten’ and hollows of the trees that grow mainly in Malaysia and Sumatra. The wood is called camphor wood and dispells insects.

kasturi
civet, musk
there are clouds of incense and musk at the offering place, as if a Buddhist ascetic was performing worship, dhùpa kasturi ring pahoman, kadi hana sira bhikûwangarcaóa (Sut 67, 7b); ); the sages from the air shower flowers and fragrant musk and finely crushed gold-ungent from the air at the death of Bhìûma. Åûi ning langit: sêkar ura, jênu hema, gandha kasturì kadi warûa kanaka (BY 13, 4)

kukus
smoke, also smoke of incense
sugandha kumukus ng asêp ya tinatà kabeh tùt sisì, kukusnya mawêlun-wêlun gugula dhùpa gandhotkaþa (Ram 3.5); the smoke of the fragrant pollen, kukus ing hrêbuk minging (BK 3,17)

letter l

làka, kayu làka, Rhus vernicifera?
lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense
Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90)

letter m

mêñan
benzoin or gum benjamin, a red resin used for incense and obtained from the Styrax benzoin
mêñan pinaka gêtih (Nawaruci 73,10)

minging
fragrance
Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90)

mrik, amrik
fragrant
Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90); when Purnawijaya arrives in the Sambodhi wihara, he worships the Buddha, while incense, lamps, perfume and rice-grains, water for washing the feet are near at hand, dhùpa mwang dìpa gandhàkûata sadulur ikang pàdyàrgha tan adoh (KKK 16, 3b), and one couls smell the scent of the fragrant flowers, mingling with the scent of unguents, màlyàrum puûpamàla prakaþa wangi nika mrik màr saha jênu (KKK 16, 13c);

letter n

letter o

letter p

pulagêne
incense powder
candu pinakalimpa, pulagêne pinakapaparu (Nawaruic 73.8)

letter r

rasamala
part. tree, Liquidambar Altingiana, its fragrant wood and resin used for burning
the aim of aúwamedhayajña is: to make a funeral pyre, magawe tumangan, as high as one prasàda, saprasàda duhurnya, and as big as two prasàda, rong prasàda gêngnya, and throw all kinds of incense and fragrances in it: dhùpa, ergulo, rasamala, salwiran wawangi, saking sabrang, saking Yawa, from each place their characteristic fragrances, saking sowang-sowang sawangi-wangi; (Koraw 78); Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90); seven flowers of the nagasari, kasturi, ergulo and rasamala represent the body of Gaóa (Koraw 90)

Kalkman 2003: 289, the Liquidambar orientalis belongs to the Hamamelidaceae. The tree produces storax resin, also called styrax. It is often mixed up with the resin of the Styrax family belonging to the Styraceae (cf gulgula). Storax is rather soft and can also be used as an ointment.

ratus, rinatus
mixture, to bled, to treat with a mixture, perhaps of incense, incense powder
hrù sampun rinatus inabhimantra campakamaya (Smaradahana 7,11)

rùm, arùm
fragrant, can be said of incense

letter s

sarêbêd
passing, wafting, of odour, of incense
anganbung ganda ning janma amêlêk sumarêbêd (Nawaruci 30,9)

sarwadhùpa
all kinds of fine incense
amungari ring sarwadhùpa mrik mrêbuk (Koraw 108.30)

sulasih
basil
the statue of Gana was worshipped by the smoke of flowers offerings, mixed with the scent of basil, aloe, sandalwood and resin, sulasih, agaru, candana, gulgula màr (BY 6, 2b,c)

letter t

têtêk
to cut, slash, tu cut up pieces of incense for burning (?)
asaji sêkar mareng bañu dudù ng anêtêk asêp i saóðing ing durung (AWW 16.2)

letter u

ukup, inukup
to perfume with fragrant smoke
(found in later texts from Bali: Kandawawanadahana; Kidung Harsawijaya)

letter w

wangi, wawangi
fragrance
the aim of aúwamedhayajña is: to make a funeral pyre, magawe tumangan, as high as one prasàda, saprasàda duhurnya, and as big as two prasàda, rong prasàda gêngnya, and throw all kinds of incense and fragrances in it: dhùpa, ergulo, rasamala, salwiran wawangi, saking sabrang, saking Yawa, from each place their characteristic fragrances, saking sowang-sowang sawangi-wangi; (Koraw 78); Gaóa wants from Brahma the first rights on all flowers, sarwakusuma; lotusses, sarwapadma; all that is fragrant, salwiring awangi; nice smelling pollen, amrik mrêbuk/hrêbuk; minging sumar, fragrant that is spreading; amungarana dhùpa utama, the first rights on incense; miñak cêre, cetronella/lemon grass oil; kalêmbak, fragrant wood, eaglewood, Aquilana malacensis; sandel wood, candana; kayu làka, lac wood, the resin of which is burnt as incense; ergulo, rosewater; rasamala wood, Liquidambar Altingiana, its frgrant wood and resin used for burning; candu, unguent, same as opium?; alikure, fragrant plant or tree? (Koraw 90)

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